When planning your diet it must be taken that the total carbohydrate energy should account for 60 percent, fats with 30 percent and protein with 20 percent.It is very important that carbohydrates are frequently consumed and that is slowly absorbed. Products such as potatoes, bread, pasta, rice, fruits, vegetables, to prevent hypoglycemia, low level of sugar in the blood.
Bread and pasta
Bread, baked goods, cereals and pasta are the richest source of carbohydrates which is why their use is strictly controlled. It is permitted to take one piece (50g/1,8oz) with every meal. It’s recommended black, rye or graham bread because they contain dietary fiber that prevent decreasing of the sugar level in the blood after a meal, which can happen if you eat white bread. If the meal has potatoes, rice, beans or peas, bread is not recommended. Toasted bread and toast have more quantities of sugar because of them completely or partially removed the water. All kinds of pasta and all kinds of flour (wheat, corn, rye, etc.) In the carbohydrate content should be treated in the same way as toasted bread. Eating macaroni, spaghetti and other pasta that contain eggs is not recommended.
The menu for diabetics (as, indeed, the average person) should be the rich with vegetables. Besides protein, fat, minerals and vitamins, vegetables contain carbohydrates that are particularly rich. Such as beans, peas, carrots, potatoes, beets and onions, so their intake should be limited to 200g/7oz per day. Vegetables which has fewer carbohydrates can be eaten in unlimited amounts : sprouts, spinach, Swiss chard, leaf vine, green beans, zucchini, peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers, various types of lettuce, eggplant, celery, parsley, radish, cabbage, kale, Brussels sprouts, mushrooms, leeks, onions, broccoli and cauliflower. Frozen, canned and dried vegetables are consumed in quantity half that of the fresh. If you make a salad use the smallest amount of oil or sour cream with 12 percent milk fat. Various kinds of hot, gourmet salads containing meat, eggs, mayonnaise, or sour cream should be avoided or taken in limited quantities.
Fruit and processed fruit
Fruit as dessert is the most natural and the best replacement for sweets. According to the content of the nutrients, the fruit is divided into three groups:
Fruit with little carbohydrates and can be taken in larger quantities – strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, watermelon, black currant, cherry, lemon, melon, oranges , tangerines;
Fruit with more carbohydrates, which should be consumed in smaller quantities – apricots, peaches, plums;
Fruits with very large quantities of carbohydrates whose use is strictly limited – apples (sweet and sour) cherries, pears, grapes, bananas, fresh figs, pineapple, mango, avocado and more. It is recommended to be eaten fresh, but if the digestive system does not tolerate, can be prepared in various ways: boiled (compote, purée, jelly) or cooked (apples, quince). Dried fruit (raisins, plums, figs, dates, pear, and blueberry) contains 5-6 times more carbohydrates from fresh fruit, so diabetics should take in a very limited quantities. Also, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, peanuts, seeds and their industrial processing are in the category of the fruit with the most carbohydrates. Instead you can use different types of dietary jams prepared this way.
Dairy and milk
Besides protein, contains fat, carbohydrates, minerals and salts, so good extent can be a cheap substitute for meat. Is allowed the use of all types of milk, and milk is best with a smaller percentage of fat (2.8 percent, 1.6 percent or 0.5 percent). From dairy products most useful are those of cow’s milk and young cheeses, because they contain proteins. Yogurt, diet fruit yogurt, acidophilus milk and kefir have a definite advantage over the whole milk. The use of old and mature cheeses should be limited. Diabetics should take daily about half a liter of milk, yogurt and other dairy products, and depending on how much is consumed meat and meat products. White cow cheese is allowed to 100 grams per day, and cream-cheese and cheese curd are not allowed.
Meat, meat products, fish and eggs
Diabetics can use all kinds of meat, but priority is given to low-fat meat. Liver (chicken and beef), heart, lung mustn’t be consumed more than twice a month. Avoid tongue, kidneys, white kidney, brain, and meat from wild animals. Meat preparations is preferably taken in the “cleaner” forms, with fewer additives and fats. The preferred chicken and turkey breast, dried meat, prosciutto, up to 100g/3.5oz per day. We can use all kinds of river and sea fish, and shellfish. Encrusted anchovies and some fish that are prepared by frying or breaded should be avoided. Processed fish contains large amounts of fat, so you should rarely be using it. Diabetics should eat up to 2 egg yolks or 4-6 whites a week. In dietary nutrition omelette should be done always in the ratio 1:1 (one egg + one egg whites , two egg + two egg whites) and prepared without oil.
Fats and oils
Diabetics can use all types of fat, but priority is given to cold pressed oils – olive above all, and the others, but in limited quantities. It can be used small amounts of solid fats such as butter. Dry bacon, and similar products have high energy input and should be avoided (100g/3,5oz) of these products contain from 600 to 800 kcal). Energy value of 1g of fat is 9 kcal.
Artificial sweeteners with fructose (fruit sugar). Barley malt is the only item that diabetics may use to sweeten their food. They have different chemical composition, are not harmful to general health and with minimal energy content.But their use is limited. With the sweeteners you can adjust the taste of the drink (milk, coffee, tea, lemonade, orangeade, fruit juices, etc.) And dietetic sweets and desserts (cakes, compotes, jams, jelly).